A pocketbook guide to events that make up the history of The City of Hereford
I have set out to simply guide the reader through the tangled history of the wonderful County of Herefordshire and particularly Hereford as a City through a timeline that picks out significant dates and places.
It is not a comprehensive or exact description of all that has happened here over thousands of years, but it helps the lay people like me have a bit of knowledge of the rich and intriguing history of the City and a little of Herefordshire.
I hope it will be a pocket guide, that will simply make people say, “Well I never knew that and did that really happen here?” If you want more there are number of particularly good detailed books available on the history of the County.
It is born out of frustration in trying to find something for house guests to take with them on trips around the County and originally to support our bid to become the County of Culture (it went to Coventry) in 2021.This small County has been a hot bed of history and in early times Hereford welded great influence and historical importance.
I hope you enjoy the pocket guide to God’s own County! (We love it anyway).
Samples have been taken from the site for carbon 14 dating. A date earlier than 2000 BC has been tentatively assigned on the basis of finds from the surface of the monument, which has changed our understanding of monumentality in Neolithic / Early Bronze Age Europe and will provoke a considerable re-think character of Neolithic and Bronze Age activity in Herefordshire.
There is some evidence that Bronze Age Man may well have been active in the County, various arrow heads and alike have been found in the County.
We know that in the Iron Age there were settlements in Credenhill and Swainshill.
Kenchester was a Roman settlement and continually active, the Romans stayed here for nearly 300 years. Indeed, in the small settlement that was Hereford, some pottery and coins have been found as to a Roman Alter. They may well have come from the Kenchester settlement (Magnis).
The locality became the centre of the Kingdom of the Magonsaete, their king being Milfrith. These were Anglo Saxon people of Merica. They were by now Christian and King Milfrith founded the Diocese and Bishop was appointed.
It is believed that Bishop PUTTA started work on the first attempt of a Cathedral which had a timber structure.
The Castle Green next to the Cathedral was at this time known to be a burial ground, it continued to be used as such for several hundred years.
The first settlement was thought to be on the gravel beds with lies between the River Wye and the Cathedral banks.
We know that the area had a King and a Bishop, but it remained a military town. The Army used a well-known Ford which was sited near the present Victoria Bridge. We can speculate that this where Hereford got its name?
“HERE” is Saxon for Army and the ford coming from the ford used? Hence Here- Ford. Some others have suggested the name came from the Welsh word for OLD ROAD. HENFFORDD which then became Hereford?
The site was valued for its water and road communications and its general positioning between Wales and England.
At this time, the Main Street probably ran along the line of what is now King Street and Castle Street which would take it past the North side of the present-day Cathedral.
Saint Guthlic’s chapel was probably built at this time on the site of the Castle Green, roughly on the South West Corner of the Bowling Green. Saint Guthlic was well known for his military prowess in fighting the Welsh.
The West Saxons defeat the Saxons.
The then Bishop of Hereford CUTHBERT commemorated Milfrith and three other Bishops on a Cross. This appears to record the first recorded evidence that the Town was named Hereford.
Bishop CUTHBERT headed a Cathedral community in Hereford.
The Saxons defeated the Welsh in the Battle of Hereford this appears to be fought in an area of ARCHENFIELD.
OFFA’S Dyke was by now under construction. It was built along the entire Welsh Border. From Bridge Sollars to Redbrook. The river Wye was deemed to be the Boundary. (This covered some 37 miles).
The King of East Anglia– Ethelbert visited Hereford and was murdered, it was thought on the instruction of OFFA. His body was later moved from its burial in Marden to the Cathedral where he was declared a martyr and many pilgrimages help swell the Coffers.
OFFA of Merica dies.
WULFHEARD was appointed Bishop and in 803 AD he attends a Council of the Mercian Church presided over by King Coenwulf.
A Church of stone was built to commemorate the now (Saint) Ethelbert on the present Cathedral site.
Second Invasion by the Danes.
The first type of defence was started about this time around the growing City of Hereford, ostensibly earth banks at about 2 metres high and low ditches. The line followed the course of the present ring road (A49) on the west side, along West street up as far as the Booth Hall and then turning back to the river through to East Street. This basic square would then protect the Cathedral.
Saint ETHELBERT’S body was moved from SUTTON WALLS to the Cathedral.
The Danes were defeated at Hereford. Hereford had now become a Burgh (Given a Royal Charter) At this time is possible that Queen AETHALFLEDA (Lady of the Mercians) built a massive rampart and a stone wall in front of the rampart.
King ATHELSTAN summoned the Welsh Princes and Nobel’s and declares the River Wye as the boundary of Wales so south of the river would have been under Welsh control.
There is evidence that that there was a market in the Town, selling mainly produce from the local countryside. A Royal Mint was founded by King ATHELSTAN, the only one West of the River Severn.
A dedication to Saint Ethelbert and Saint Guthlac is established.
Bishop ATHELSTAN began rebuilding the Cathedral in stone. The money bought in by Pilgrims who visited the Shrines of Saint ETHELBERT and Saint GUTHLAC, helped, and supported this for about 40 years.
The MINT continues to flourish including under Cnut and monies are produced for the King and the Bishop by the mid-11th century.
Hereford became a SHIRE TOWN and then an Earldom
There are signs that development began taking place to the North of the present-day West Street and East Street. This development would have been outside of the Existing Walls.
Hereford became prominent under EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Edward gave the Earldom to his Nephew RALPH, Earl of Hereford. He was the successor to SWEIN GODWINSON.
The Castle was built by RALPH and the earthworks around it modified by this time many of the present-day roads were in existence.
There was a significant battle which probably took place around the HOLMER area. LLYWELYN (Wales) and SAXON AELFGAR defeated Earl RALPH. The Town and the Cathedral were completely burnt down. Many of the population were murdered, including six Canons who died defending the Cathedral.
It is believed that PUTTA established a SEE in Hereford or Ledbury? There was a Cathedral in HEREFORD probably in Timber where the bones of St ETHELBERT were received.
Some time before 1055 ATHELSTAN Bishop of Hereford rebuilt the Cathedral. His own demise came later when the Welsh burnt the City down.
HAROLD GODWINSON returned to the destroyed Town after RALPH’S death. Work again commenced on the Walls. They were strengthened. It is probable that a new wall to the North of the existing one was built running along the line of the present-day ring road.
HAROLD frequently hunted in HAYWOOD FOREST.
Planning for the Norman Cathedral was instigated by Walter of Lotharingia formerly Chaplain to Edward The Confessor’s wife Edith, he was now consecrated Bishop of Hereford.
HAROLD defeated the WELSH using Hereford as his base.
WILLIAM FITZOSBERN (First Norman Earl of Hereford) who was a good friend of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR and his best officer was sent to command HEREFORD. To rebuild and strengthen the Castle. He turned it into a NORMAN Garrison and developed trade in the Town. The Market was moved from Broad Street to High Town. French people came over from Normandy and settled in the Mill Street area.
The Cathedral was reorganised by WALTER OF LORRAINE.
The Castle was attacked by the Welsh and the Saxons who had joined against the Normans. They were led by EDRIC THE WILD but easily defeated by the strength of the Normans.
The Normans reduced the power of the BISHOPS, the land that the Bishops owned was reduced from 98 plots to 60 plots.
The Castle was at this time significantly reinforced and made into an extraordinarily strong Fortress.
Arrangements were made for the Earldom to be a LOWLAND ADMINSTRATION CENTRE. The others were Chester (River Dee) Shrewsbury (River Severn).
Work begins on rebuilding the Cathedral by the Norman Bishop ROBERT de LOSINGA although some accounts find that REINHELM may have been the instigator of the stone building.
Saint Peters Church was also started in the then Market area, it was Endowed by WALTER de LACY. Saint Owen’s (Saint AUDOEN) Church built.
The DOMEDAY BOOK records that Hereford was divided between the KING, The BISHOP and the EARL. The King, however, was paramount in size the City ranked with importance with OXFORD and CANTERBURY.
Herefordshire’s population at Domesday was 4,453
Six smiths made the King’s Horse shoes. Each Smith paid about (1p) for the rent of the Forge and had to make 130 horseshoes for the KING. He was paid about (3p) for these.
There was trade with DROITWICH (salt) and if a man’s wife brewed beer the man had to pay (4.5p). If a man did not have a horse, he had to do guard duty for the King.
Money was minted for the KING; he supplied the Silver. There were by now 103 BURGESSES and they held MASURAE (Fields) inside and outside of the City. Twenty years after William I conquered Britain and by the time of Domesday (1086) Hereford was one of only sixteen great Cities.
The Lords Marchers seized the City against WILLIAM RUFUS. This revolt was crushed and there is evidence that Hereford remained a very prosperous City.
There was another revolt but this too failed. At this time, the BURGHAL COURT was held in front of Saint Peters Church.
The earliest BRIDGE was constructed of Timber, Stone was used around 1100’s.
The ANARACHY Geoffrey Talbot overwhelmed the Garrison and seized Hereford Castle for MATILA (William’s Daughter). Stephen besieged Hereford Castle and soon took it.
Stephen crowns himself King in Hereford Cathedral. Whitsun 22nd May Stephen wears the Crown in the unfinished Cathedral.
Matilda created Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford granting him and his HEIRS, the Castle and Moat of Hereford.
MATILDA created MILES of GLOUCESTER, Earl of Hereford.
STEPHEN attended a service in the Cathedral on Whit Sunday. He wore the Royal Crown and Robes as a symbol of his reinstatement as a powerful KING.
MILES is succeeded by his son as Earl of Hereford
Saint GUTHLAC’S Priory is founded East of the City where the Bus Station now stands.
Through the Great custom Book, or Charter of King Henry 11 (1154-1189) the City of Hereford became the seat of medieval democracy…. As well as democratically electing an annual bailiff, it delivered fair justice using the concept of the Jury, made up of no less than 12 men good and true.
ROGER son of MILES of Gloucester rebelled against HENRY (2) and fortified the Castle against the KING. HENRY quickly put down the revolt and the Castle remained Loyal until CHARLES (1) deposed of it.
Saint NICHOLAS church is built, he is the patron Saint of Sailors and there is a growing connection of increasing road and RIVER traffic.
HOSPITALLERS House in Widemarsh Street is established.
HENRY (2) visited Hereford during the WELSH campaigns. Bishop’s Hall and the Prison are built.
The Three-day Fair was extended to Seven Days. General Immigration from the Countryside grew, TRADES developed within the City. Building, Tanning, Milling, Weaving, Wine growing, and Farming developed which grew the City’s prosperity.
The first Saint MARTINS church was built, the Castle Green given to the Monks of Saint Guthlac.
The Bishops Palace was built.
In the period of 1180-1200, there was something approaching a flourishing “academy” of scholars at the Cathedral at Hereford. The seven Liberal Arts were more studied than anywhere else in England. There are indications of strong intellectual links between Hereford and Oxford at this time, Roger of Hereford in particular was a celebrated Scientist. Some English scholars may have fled to Hereford from the University of Paris at this time.
Both Hereford and Oxford were at the forefront of early scholarly traditions in England- Hereford through its Cathedral as a centre of intellectual study and learning and Oxford through the medieval university with its classes and disputations.
Bishop Losinga (1070-1095) introduced the concept of Arabic Mathematics and probably introduced the ABACUS into England.
In the period 1360-1390 two Bishops of Hereford served as Chancellors of the University of Oxford. There seems to have been a Dominican (Blackfriars) connection between Hereford and Oxford in part Bishop John Gilbert (1375-89) a former Dominican Friar, later to be Treasurer of England. Also, through Nicholas Hereford, a prominent Oxford Scholar and dissenter who then recanted and became Chancellor of Hereford Cathedral.
The first CHARTER was granted by RICHARD (1) to the people of Hereford, this allowed the Citizens to direct and fixed rent to the Exchequer INSTEAD of paying to the Sheriff. This did not mean the City was free from the King as overlord. However, its Citizens were free from the interference of the Sheriff in legal cases arising within the City.
In general, it gave the people an active interest in their City and virtual self-government.
After the Charter, work was started again on the City Wall. A general rampart was built with a fence on it. It is possible that the rampart in Saint Martins was built at this time.
The TEMPLARS House in Saint Owen’s Street was commenced.
In 1189, AFTER THE Death of Henry, his son Richard 1 sold Hereford to its people, yet the Charter Book remained until the reign of Charles 11.
Work began on the Lady Chapel in the Cathedral.
Reference is made to the FOUR Gates of the City, East Gate, Widemarsh Gate, Bye Gate and Saint Owen’s Gate.
A year after the Charter was granted (Richard) the Sheriff had a grant of £56 0s 8d for the making of FOUR City Gates and one Gate for the Castle.
Hereford had become a considerable centre of the CLOTH industry and a Wealthy JEWISH community developed. Streets were given names which reflected the trades active here. FRENCH(E) MEN’S STREET, CORVESTER’S ROW, SADELWRITES STREET, MERCERS ROW.
Dyers and Fullers, Weavers and GLOVERS, were trading in the City.
Richard (1) Grants land for the improvement of the Canon’s commons.
KING JOHN visits the City and revived the Earldom which he gave to the de BOHUN Family.
Much work carried out on the Gates of the Castle.
There is evidence that ALL SAINTS CHURCH was built at this time.
KING JOHN granted a Charter giving the City the right to a MERCHANT GUILD. This secured the right of the citizens to control the Market and City Trade.
KING JOHN makes his last visit to Hereford. He makes Hereford Castle his home in July. John under the threat from the French (Louis of France) hides in Hereford and pleads for help from the Welsh.
The pacification of the WELSH led to expansion and further prosperity within the City. There was a great “promotion” of the Cult of Saint ETHELBERT and SAINT GUTHLAC which brought in considerable wealth via the vast number of PILGRIMS who visited.
At this time, a HOSPITAL had been built next to Saint Martin’s Church.
The work on a STONE WALL is started and Funded by Regular MURAGE grants.
The early English LADY CHAPEL in the Cathedral is completed.
The Hospital of Saint ETHELBERT was built to feed 100 persons daily.
It is possible that the CORNMARKET was founded in this year.
A Charter was Granted by HENRY (3) TO THE CITIZENS for the right to hold and Annual FAIR on the Feast of SAINT DENIS and the two days following.
This was October 9,10,11 and was not connected to the May Fair.
At the same time, He Confirmed KING JOHN’S charter.
HENRY (3) makes Hereford his base for the campaign against the WELSH. He strengthens the Castle and it is said it was a FAVOURITE place for the King.
Fighting equipment is made here: MANGONELS (stone hurling engines) QUARRELS (cross bow bolts) and PETRARIES. These were dispatched to IRELAND.
The population grew considerably, immigrants are recorded from Towns such as CIRENCESTER, GLOUCESTER, LEDBURY, LEOMINSTER and EVERSHAM.
HENRY (3) returns to the City to suppress a revolt from the LORD MARCHERS.
PETER de AQUABLANCA was created Bishop and brought many foreign Clergy.
The KING’S Chapel is built in the Castle.
The CLERESTORY OF THE CHOIR and the Vaulting in the Cathedral are completed.
Work was in progress on a small Tower in the Castle.
There is mention that The KINGS Grange (Barn) is under way in the Castle area.
The BLACKFRIARS were established outside Saint Owen’s Gate in Portfield.
The Hospital of Saint Austin was operated as a school.
The inner part of the Cathedral the North Porch was Finished. (The North Transept was continued based on a design of Westminster Abbey.)
An order was made for a QUAY to be built at the Castle.
A charter was granted by KING HENRY (3). This prevented the Crown confiscating property or money if a citizen died without making a will. A citizen could also claim immunity from wrongful arrest just because he was from HEREFORD.
The North Transept was built by Bishop Peter de Aquablanca.
LLYWELYN AP GRUFFUDD ravaged Herefordshire as far as Weobley and the burgesses of Hereford would have known the CITY was in some danger.
A Friary was built outside the WEST Gate (Also known as Saint Nicholas Gate and Later Friars Gate).
The King’s Judges and Bishop Peter de Aquablanca agreed on control of the City the Friars and the Bishop triumphed.
Simon de Montfort and Hereford, the Citizens of Hereford took Simon’s side in the affair and on 10th November one of Simon’s bitterest enemies ROGER Mortimer of Wigmore Castle moved against the City. The Cities defences held, and he had to be content with ravaging the suburbs.
Instructions were given to the SHERIFF: That a Tower was to be fitted to the Hereford Castle. With joists and the Roof with Lead. To further make a bridge to the Tower, repair the King’s and Queen’s Halls, chambers and kitchens, the larder and the Knights Chambers. The King’s Chapel was to be repaired and the stables and two turrets repaired.
The chamber for the King’s Clerks was to be finished. A bake House was required. The walls descending from the Tower was to be repaired. The Kings Hall was to be repaired, which belonged to the Almonry the Halls were the County Courts. Repair was sanctioned to the wall around the Castle and Towers and the Gate beneath the Tower, the swing bridges. Currently there is a prison in the Castle.
An Example of a City rent at the time:
One Clove, One Peppercorn, One Rose, A pair of Gloves. One Pound of Pepper, One Silver Penny.
For the Lease of Land:
Ten Loads of Corn, well dried and Winnowed and Measured.
At this time, the BOOTH HALL was used as the City Court and was known as the King’s Court of Hereford. Bailiffs oversaw Law and Order and the Upkeep of the City Walls and the Defence of the City.
Northgate was in the hands of the Bishop.
Hereford Castle was captured by de MONFORT and his Ally PRINCE LLYWELLYN.
KING HENRY (3) and PRINCE EDWARD were lodged there while SIMON de MONFORT controlled the Castle.
De MONFORT removed Bishop Peter de Aquablanca.
While PRINCE EDWARD was in Captivity, he pretended to exercise his horse on Widemarsh common where he escaped to WIGMORE CASTLE.
At this it is probable that the BASTIONS were built in the City Wall, there were 17 at about 6 metres high.
THOMAS CANTILUPE becomes Bishop.
Hereford was one of the first Cities to send representatives to the NATIONAL DELIBERATION.
Bishop THOMAS CANTILUPE dies in ITALY.
All JEWS living the City were Imprisoned.
EWARD (1) visited Hereford and witnessed the removal of the remains of CATILUPE moved to a new tomb in the Cathedral.
The JEWS were expelled from the City.
The North Choir Aisle and the North East Transept were built.
A survey of the Castle was carried out.
The CULT of Thomas Cantilupe brought considerable wealth to the City at least 50 Masons are employed to work on the Cathedral.
By this time Two MEMBERS regularly attend the King’s Court.
The UPPER portion of the Cathedral Tower was rebuilt, and HEREFORDSHIRE BALL-FLOWER designs were used.
The Citizens continue building the Wall supported by EDWARD.
EDWARD grants the Bailiffs and Worthy men of Hereford the right of Levy, for a period of 5 years: specified Tolls on goods coming into the City, the revenues are used for the WALLING of the City.
A further study of the Castle shows that the GREAT HALL has by now lost its lead and Shingles and that the timber was decaying.
The MAPPA MUNDI was designed by RICHARD de HALDINGHAM
The Outside of the Cathedral walls were rebuilt and the mouldings in the North and South Choir Aisles were also built these are almost Identical to those that can be found in WELLS Cathedral in Somerset.
The Mappa Mundi. its author RICHARD de BELLO treasure of Lincoln Cathedral became cannon at Hereford, this may explain how the Map came to find itself in Hereford.
Bishop ORLETON and the Lords Marches oppose the KING.
Precentor John SWINFIELD died his tomb was placed in the Cathedral.
EDWARD (3) CONFIRMS the previous Charters of RICHARD (1) KING JOHN, and HENRY (3).
The BLACKFRIARS are established in Widemarsh Street.
Saint THOMAS CANTILUPE is Canonised.
The KING EDWARD (3) came to the City and seized Bishop ORELTON’S. property.
The graveyard outside the Cathedral on the North side was walled.
QUEEN ISABELLA, EDWARD’S wife took a stand against EDWARD and used HEREFORD as a base. She spent a month in the Bishop’s Palace. She was an obvious ally of the Bishop against the KING. She as a show of defiance hanged a favourite of the King, HUGH DESPENSER in High Town from gallows that were said to be some 15 metres high.
EDWARD (3) confirms three previous Charters.
A COUNCIL OF THE REALM met in Hereford to declare EDWARD (3) THE PROTECTOR.
The BUBONIC PLAGUE is virulent in the City, however work on the Cathedral continues.
EDWARD (3) returns to the City to witness the CONSECRATION of the Church of BLACK FRIARS with the Black PRINCE and many nobles.
The existing BOOTHHALL was built by HENRY CATCHPOLE and was used as a hall of PLEAS, MERCER’S GUILD HALL and a centre for the sale of WOOL.
Sir Richard “Dick” Whittington who became Lord Mayor of London was born in Sollars Hope.
The Choir Stalls with fine Canopies and Master-cords were made. A rectangular chamber with a SQUINT was made for watching the Shrine of THOMAS CANTILUPE in the Lady Chapel.
The Bubonic Plague returns to the City.
Sir Richard PEMBRIDGE whose Tomb is in the Cathedral dies.
The South East Transept is built.
NICHOLAS de HEREFORD TRANSLATED THE BIBLE.
Hereford’s prosperity continued mainly because of CLOTH and associated trades. These were Dyers and Fullers, Weavers, Tailors, Hosiers, Cappers and Stall holders. There were at least TWO Fulling Mills and considerable Royal and Foreign traders buying WOOL.
A charter from RICHARD (2) CONFIRMS THE CHARTER OF 1331.
A Chief Official is granted title of MAYOR.
A charter grants Citizens the right to charge TOLLS for goods brought in over the WYEBBRIDE.
Two Charters are made by Richard II for the provision of the repair of the Bridge much damaged by the great Hereford FLOOD. Timber and Stone is granted from the Royal De la Haye Forest, which came up to the Gates of the City.
The Cathedral School is re founded.
The rights of Pasture within the Castle were granted to ROGER PLOWFIELD.
Many pigs and Hogs roamed the streets and entered the Cathedral Graveyard and dig up shallow graves. A licence was grated for lockable gates to be put in the walls of the Graveyard.
JOHN OF GAUNT, Duke of Lancaster was appointed Governor of the Castle. It had become run down and Lancaster begged wood to repair it. However, KING RICHARD (2) took the Governorship from Lancaster.
The City bought the Booth Hall from HENRY CATCHPOLE who was a famous merchant and former Mayor.
Walter Butt is brought for trail before the Bishop.
KING RICHARD (2) commands that Licences must now be bought for Religious Houses.
The Vicars Choral, 29 Castle Street was incorporated into a College by Richard II.
A charter was granted for Reprisals in cases of unlawful arrest.
A threat arose from OWAIN Glyn DWR the newly proclaimed PRINCE of Wales. On 22ND June, a large force under Edmund MORTIMER consisting mainly of men from Herefordshire was heavily defeated by the Welsh Army.
Prince HENRY BASED himself and his Household in Hereford and Leominster.
HENRY (6) confirmed the Charter of HENRY (4) IN 1399.
HENRY (6) A Lancastrian visited Hereford.
QUEEN MARGARET OF LANCASTER (Henry’s wife) brought a Court to Hereford.
A grant is made by HENRY (6) Exempting the Citizens from collecting taxes except within the CITY.
RICHARD DUKE OF YORK passes through Hereford on his way to the Battle of WAKEFIELD where he died.
RICHARD’S SON EDWARD came to the City after the BATTLE OF MORTIMERS CROSS which gave him the CROWN when he defeated HENRY (6)
EDWARD executed OWEN TUDOR and other Lancastrians in HEREFORD.
His severed head was placed on the steps of the City Market Cross. His body was buried in the chapel of Greyfriars church and a Greystone set into the ground in High Street centuries later where his head had been displayed.
Edward confirms previous charters.
The New College of Vicars Choral is built.
After EDWARD (4) return from France to the Throne he sent his QUEEN and his SON PRINCE EDWARD (later EDWARD (5) to HEREFORD. This was to hold an ASSIZE on account of BORDER problems.
The passage from the Saint John’s Door to the College of Cloisters was built.
The Chantry Chapel of Bishop John STANSBURY was built.
HENRY (7) visited Hereford.
The TOLSEY was built. (Meeting place for the City Council.)
The Present day (OLD Bridge) was built to cross the Wye into the City.
The AUDLEY Chantry Chapel was erected. (Columbus Sails to the New World).
The County is granted the right to be assessed separately from the City by HENRY (7).
CIDER TREE culture was first introduced.
Cardinal Thomas WOLSEY was Dean of Hereford Cathedral he went on to be Chaplin to HENRY VIII, who tried to make him POPE.
A Porch was built on the North Nave by Bishop BOOTH.
A law was passed that stated, “Only Freemen could be elected Members of Parliament”.
The subsidy returns show that by now Hereford was a moderately prosperous Country Town.
The BOOTH HALL was used as a prison for FREEMEN who could not find security.
John Davies, poet and the “Pen Man” the greatest master of the pen that England in her age beheld: was born.
A charter was granted to the CORVISORS (leather workers).
A charter was granted to the CLOTHWORKERS and Mercers.
The PRIVY COUNSEL directed that the Mayor of Hereford who was an elected Mayor be a PRODESTANT.
QUEEN ELIZABETH (1) endowed the Cathedral.
The decline of Hereford continues and Bishop SCORY requested that two Clothiers should set the poor to work during this year. The Weavers complained of poor conditions as there was an admission of strangers and people not duly apprenticed.
A petition stated that the “High Causeway” was almost impassable because of the piles of Merchandise, it asked for the Fruit and Iron Markets should be relocated to Saint Peter’s Cross.
MILES SMITH worked on the Authorised version of the BIBLE.
The Cathedral Library was moved from the Old West Cloister to the Lady Chapel.
A Charter is granted to the Butchers.
A Charter is granted to the Tanners.
ELIZABETH (1) grants a Charter of Incorporation. The Governing body of the City is now to consist of a Common Council of 31 Members among which is the Mayor and the Aldermen. It is to meet at the Guildhall for the Transaction of the City’s Business and for Elections. The Mayor to serve for a Year and Officers to be appointed among them a Chief Steward, a Town Clerk and Sergeants at Mace. This charter served to confirm all previous ones and served to bring them all together.
A charter was granted to Tailors and Weavers.
Kerry’s Hospital was founded, and Williams Hospital was founded, outside Saint Owen’s Gate.
Trinity Hospital was founded in Commercial Street.
A Charter was granted to Bakers.
The NEW MARKET HALL was built.
BISHOP Herbert WESTFAILING died.
An Act of Parliament was passed to prevent the Adulteration of HOPS.
A Charter was granted to the GOLDSMITHS.
John Hoskins organised Morris Dancing in the City. The famed hobby -horse race and the May Morris Daunce draws thousands of spectators.
The PLAUGE attacks Hereford for the Final time.
SPEEDE’S Map of Hereford was published, this showed the development outside EIGN and WIDEMARSH GATES.
Construction of the Chained Library starts, under the instruction of Thomas Thornton Precentor and Master of the Library.
Coningsby Hospital of thirteenth century origins, as the Hospital of the Holy Ghost and St JOHN, later to transfer to the Knights Hospitallers, re founded in 1614 by Sir Thomas Coningsby.
The OLD HOUSE was built by Butcher John JONES.
The EARL of STAMFORD appeared before the Gates of Hereford and entered the City with NO opposition. He resided in the Bishop’s Palace from September 30th until December 14th wherein he departed, and the City was retaken.
One of STAMFORD’S officers wrote at the time, “ The inhabitants are totally ignorant in the ways of GOD and much addicted to DRUNKENESS and other VICES, but principally to SWEARING, so that children who have scarce learned to walk do UNIVERSALLY SWEAR STOUTLY and many speak WELSH.
The City was BESIEGED in April by Parliamentary Forces and surrendered to SIR WILLIAM WALLER the defences were in a very weak state. He captured The Royalists including Viscount SCUDAMORE.
Hereford was Re occupied by the Royalists LORD LEVIN surrounded it and then left soon afterwards.
The Cathedral and Chapter House and the Palace were damaged by Parliamentarians. Saint Owen’s and Saint Martin’s Church were both destroyed, and the WYE Bridge was irreparably damaged.
IN JULY, the SCOTISH Army attacked Hereford under EARL de LEVEN.
Barnabas SCUDAMORE was well prepared, and 1000 Townsmen took up arms including women and children. The SIEGE lasted for 5 weeks and the SCOTS dispersed when KING CHARLES Approached.
In September CHARLES made Hereford his Headquarters. HE reorganised his army and left later in the Month. He awarded the City a new Coat of Arms, its motto “ INVICATAE FIDELITATIS PRAEMIUM “
The Border was embossed with the Saint Andrews Cross on the City’s coat of Arms.
Hereford was re-occupied by the Royalists, Lord LEVIN surrounded it and left in hurry.
The Cathedral, Chapter House and Palace were damaged by Parliamentarians. St Owen and Saint Martin’s Street Church were both destroyed and the W ye Bridge damaged.
In July, the Scottish Army attacked Hereford under Earl de Leven.
Barnabas Scudamore was well prepared, and 1000 Townsmen took up arms. Including women and children. The siege lasted for 5 weeks and the scouts dispersed when King Charles approached.
In September King Charles made Hereford his Headquarters, reorganised his army and left later in the month. He gave the City its motto:
“Invictae Fidelities Premium “and the border of the St Andrew’s cross was fixed to the coat of arms.
The lead from the Chapter House was removed and used to make Bullets.
The Citizens complained to the Speaker of the House of Commons about extractions of the Parliamentary Troops in Hereford.
Nell Gwynn was born in Pipe Lane (Gwynne Street). Born into a family of Clerics and brewers. She became King Charles II’s mistress.
The Castle was formally demolished, and the stone used to build a New Hall for the Vicar’s Choral.
Twenty-Three Quakers were arrested at a meeting in Hinton.
Dr Primrose was evicted from his living at All Saints Church. As a non-conformist, he then founded The Eign Brook Congregational Church.
The Occupants of the OLD HOUSE were Mary JONES almost certainly a widow of BUTCHER John Jones and Griffith Greenaway who probably ran the shop for her as she must have been in her 80’s.
Rules were drawn up for a Grammar School, which later became the Cathedral School: The final rule was that: Scholars should be kept from that most wicked vice of swearing- The Epidemical synne of this City!
The Hearth Tax returned and revealed a startling decline in wealth and position 364 Houses paid Tax. Bysters Ward was the largest with 118. The largest Houses were in St Owen’s Ward and Castle Street.
The Hospital outside Wyebridge was re-endowed and rebuilt.
Thomas Baskerville comments that Hereford, that they make exceptionally good Gloves… Gloving was a Cottage Industry.
Williams Hospital rebuilt in Brick.
John Silvester’s map of The Castle published.
John Kemble a Roman Catholic Priest was Hanged on Widemarsh Common at the age of 80. He was a recusant and would not pay fines or go to Protestant Church.
Lord Scudamore’s Endowed Schools Founded.
The First Official Post Office was opened in the City.
Previous Charters were surrendered, and Charles II granted a New Charter which gave The Crown the right to Confirm Appointments of the Chief Steward, Town Clerk, and Aldermen.
The Charter of Charles II (1682) was Recalled.
The Roman Catholic Church of St Francis Xavier was first established.
Thomas Dingly recorded seeing A Map of the World in the Lady Chapel drawn on vellum and kept by a monk in a gilded frame, this is the earliest record of the “Mappa Mundi. “
The cost of a New Cathedral Organ was given by Charles II and built after his death.
The Original Quaker Meeting House was built, later demolished in the 19th Century.
A Charter was granted by William and Mary to give the City a Three-Day Fair at Easter.
A Charter was granted to the Haberdashers.
A Charter was granted to the Haberdashers.
The Bowling Green behind Bewell Street was in use.
Dr Brewster Built a Fine “Up to date House” in Widemarsh Street. This became the Mansion House and is now Blacks Clothing store.
A Charter was granted to the Joiners.
A further Charter was granted by William III to the City. This meant that a further two-day fair was granted in February. The City now had Four FAIRS – February, Easter, and June and finally October. The Charter also defined the Constitution of the Common Council.
A custom Peculiar to Hereford ended the year, this was known as the “Hereford Riding” and a Labourer Rode a Donkey into the City during Passion week.
Mary Shelley’s Hospital Founded
The Bluecoat School Founded.
Dr Brewster left the Chained Library to All Saints Church in his will.
David Garrick was born at the Raven Inn in Widemarsh Street.
The Three Choirs Festival was inaugurated. The oldest classical Church music festivals, Hereford, Gloucester, and Worcester Cathedrals were generally the venues.
Glove Making was at this time the City’s main Industry until it lost it to Worcester in the 1800’s.
There was a principal factory near the North End of the New Bridge by the River.
Pascha was Published the First in the City.
John Beale, writing in this year puts the City’s Poverty down to the lack of “Transportation” it was difficult to improve the Navigation of the Wye because of the varying depths of water.
Daniel Defoe visits Hereford and found it unmodern, large, populous very mean and very Dirty.
Drybridge House and Bewell House were built.
Bishop Henry Egerton partly demolished the Romanesque Double Chapel of St Mary Magdalen and St Catherine in the South of the Cathedral.
The Hereford Journal was first Published.
The Society of Templers leased the Castle Green.
Sarah Siddons (Actress) Daughter of well-known actor Roger Kemble who was well known for playing Shakespearian roles.
Taylors Map of Hereford was published.
The Population of the City was 5,592 (3,878 within the Walls and 1,714 outside)
The New Guild Hall was built and used for the Three Choirs Festival.
The First Theatre was built in Broad Street.
The Hereford Palladian Lodge of Freemasons was established.
The Mansion House was conveyed to the Council on Trust and the rent used to pay for a Chaplain to Prisoners in the Goals.
The Chapter House in the Cathedral was lost having fallen into decay once the lead from its roof had been stripped during the Siege of Hereford in 1645.
Corn and Cider were important Exports to Bristol and Flax Dressing became the Industry of the Time.
St Giles Hospital was rebuilt.
Six Welsh Men were Executed at Gallows Tump.
The General Hospital was founded.
The Tolsey was demolished.
The Cathedral Gates were changed to Turnstiles.
Hereford Racecourse was opened, meets usually took place in August and the prize was 10 shillings.
The Paving and Lighting Act (The Lamp Act) Instructed the City to Pitch and Pave the Streets, to Light and Repair the same. Further to Pull Down Projections and Remove all Open Brooks in the Street. These were used to carry away the waste.
A Stagecoach Service was Commenced.
The Building of the County Goal was Commenced, the eventual cost being £18,646.
A Portico was built on the Castle Green.
The Wye Bridge and Friars Gate were Demolished as were Large Parts of the City Wall. The Fronts of many buildings were replaced but interiors untouched, many are still observable today.
The General Hospital was opened.
The City was Thinly Populated- Melancholy and Monastic and would look better Enlivened by Soldiers.
The Population was 5,638.
The Cathedral Gates were changed to Turnstiles.
St Owen’s Gate was Demolished.
Despite several Warnings the West Frontage of the Cathedral Collapsed. On Easter MONDAY, the wooden Spire rising 92 feet above the central tower was removed to lessen the load on the Nave.
Eign Gate was Demolished.
The House of Industry was started.
A plan to demolish the West Side of Cabbage Lane (Church Street) was proposed to make a Broad Avenue leading to the Cathedral this was not adopted.
By this date, the Collapsed West Front had been rebuilt but by One Bay shorter due to lack of Funds.
Norgate was demolished and the Top of Broad Street was widened. A Town House was built by the Duke of Norfolk. This building later became The City Arms (Now Barclays Bank).
An Act of Parliament was passed in order to Cut a Canal into Hereford.
Burials in the Cathedral Close were discontinued.
A Theatre was built in the City for the first time.
The Top Floor of the Market Hall in High Town was removed and replaced by the “Worst Style” of the Time.
The County Goal (designed by John Nash) Replaced the Old Goal near St Peters Church. Nash designed Marble Arch and the Brighton Pavilion. The Goal had a Flat Roof to accommodate the Gallows for public viewing. It closed in 1915, only used then to detain First World War deserters.
William POWELL born and educated in Hereford became the protégé of David Garrick he made his stage debut in 1793 at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane.
The City Arms was named and opened.
The Turnpike Roads were built at this time.
A lunatic Asylum was built, the site being on the present Corner of Green Street and Nelson Street.
The Spire of the Cathedral was taken down to Relieve the weight of the Piers.
The County Goal was opened on the site of St Guthlac’s Priory. This is now the site of the Bus Station.
John Price described the City as having Nine GOOD Streets, Broad and Well Paved. St Owen’s Street, Bye Street, High Town, Widemarsh Street, Eign Street, Broad Street, Castle Street, King Street and Wyebridge Street.
The Population was now 5,962.
Bysters and Widemarsh Gates were demolished.
Bishop John Butler made an appeal to the Nobility and Clergy to help the poor.
The City was described as a remote County Town with NO good connections with expanding Industrial Towns. It had a general Market with trade in Hops, Cider, Perry, Fruit, and Wool.
The County Prison on the Castle Green was converted to a Dwelling House.
The Population was now 6,828.
A Butcher auctioned his wife for 24s (£1.20p)
Lord Horatio Nelson is made an Honorary Hereford Freeman.
The Cathedral School is moved to its current site.
No 1 High town is built, and the Street widened.
No 2 Widemarsh Street is built (Now 151/2).
St Ethelbert’s Hospital Cottages were rebuilt in Castle Street.
The Cathedral Organ was added to.
The people of Hereford erect a 60ft high monument on Castle Green to Nelson.
The River Wye is used heavily for trade. The Quay was thronged with Barges. An Act of Parliament was passed for making a tow path on onside of the river.
The Butter and Poultry Market was opened.
The Population was 7,305.
DAVID COX, renown artist moves to the City as a drawing master.
The building of the Shirehall was commenced.
An Assize Court was held for the first time.
The Shirehall was opened and a permanent library was established in St John Street.
Part of Butcher’s Row was demolished.
The Judges House was purchased in High Town.
Tom Spring the World Champion bare knuckle boxer born in Fownhope, became Landlord of the Boothhall which by now had become an Inn.
The Population had become, 9,076.
The Hereford Independent was first published.
Shipbuilding was important in the City and boats were launched from Easton’s Yard opposite the Castle Green. Fine Herefordshire Oak was prime boat building material.
There were by now 56 Inn’s in the City.
There was great Heat and Drought in the City.
Trinity Hospital Cottages were rebuilt in Commercial Street.
The Streets were lit by Gas for the first time replacing the 150 Oil Lamps.
Wye Bridge was widened, Friends Meeting House in King Street was built. Three local Banks stopped payments.
An Act of Parliament was passed for a Railroad to be built.
Bluecoat School moved to a Georgian building in Blueschool Street.
The TRAMROAD from Abergavenny reached Hereford and came to Jordan’s Boat House ( Near the present Rowing club) Coal now came from South Wales and no longer from the Forest of Dean, this was unloaded on the Wharf ( near the present day Saracen’s Head Inn). Exports now include Wheat, Cider, Wool, Hops, Oakbark and Timber.
Imports include, mainly Coal which costs 30s (£1.50p) per Ton from the Forrest of Dean and now 22s (£1.10p) from South Wales.
A Flannel factory was opened – but deemed unsuccessful.
Herefordshire County Cricket Club was formed with games taking place on Widemarsh Common. Hereford City (Sports Club) formed in 1836/7.
The Population has risen to, 10,282.
The Hereford Times was established by Charles Anthony.
The Reverend John Venn was the Vicar of St Peter’s.
Princess Victoria visited the City with her mother the Duchess of Kent.
Friends Burial ground was opened in King Street.
Municipal Reform Act was passed reducing Aldermen and Councillors to 24.
The First Roman Catholic School was established St Francis Xavier School.
A dispensary was established in the County. William IV granted a charter which established Quarter Sessions.
A Police Force was created. The Municipal Reform Act was adopted.
The First Baptist Church is built. Hereford County Press is established publishing at 4.5p (2p in new money).
The Foundation stone is laid for the Catholic Church
The Remaining part of Butcher’s Row is demolished, leaving only the OLD House remaining.
St Peter’s School is founded.
An Ancient Crozier and Episcopal ring and seal were stolen from the Cathedral Library a £30 was put up as a reward for their return.
An Act of Parliament was passed removing the Bishop’s Privileges in connection with the Fairs.
The Gloucester Canal was extended from Ledbury to Monkmoor Street in Hereford.
St Owen’s School is founded.
The Roman Catholic Church in Broad Street is opened.
The Union Workhouse was built.
The Stone Choir Screen in the Cathedral was pulled down so that work could begin in strengthening the Tower.
Extensive work was carried out on the Cathedral, the Chained Library is dismantled to enable restoration of the Lady Chapel.
The Hereford Society for Aiding the Industrious was founded by John Venn.
The Original St Nicholas Church was demolished.
The Mechanics Institute was founded in Cathedral Close.
The Foundation Stone of St Nicholas Church was laid.
Population is now: 10,921
The City Goal is built.
The Old City Prison in Commercial Square was demolished.
St Nicholas School founded.
The Canals reach Hereford May 1845.
The Newport, Abergavenny and Hereford Railways brought the Tramroad.
St Martins Church is built.
A City Fire Brigade is created.
It was discussed that the North side of High Street be demolished (The present-day Boots). Also, the whole of Eign Street and All Saints Church to make a Thoroughfare which included Bewell Street.
The Tower of the Cathedral was under danger of collapse.
L.N. Cottingham was the Architect appointed was set to reduce the weight above the Cathedral vaulting.
The First Cider Works are opened William Evans and Co established near Widemarsh Common.
The Tramroad was closed, the Population was now 12,128.
Bye Street was renamed Commercial Street.
Scudamore Schools were first built.
The Woolhope Naturalist’s Field Club was founded.
The Shrewsbury- Hereford Railway was opened.
The Newport-Hereford Railway was opened.
The First Iron Bridge was built over the Wye at Hunderton.
The Railway arrives in Hereford on 6th December with some 60,000 people descend on the City to celebrate.
The Hereford Improvement Act saw Sewerage and Waterworks appear they were overseen by Charles Anthony.
The North Door Ironwork was made by Potter of London.
Many of the Street are renamed:
Barrs Court station was built at a cost of £30,000.
The Stock Market was opened.
Sir Edward Elgar (B) lived in Plas Gwyn in Hampton Park Road from 1904- 1911.
The Front of the Green Dragon was built.
Holmer School was Founded.
The Corn Exchange was opened in Broad Street.
The Herefordshire Rifle Volunteer Corps was formed. Barton Hall, for the Plymouth Brethren was built.
St Martin’s School was founded.
There were 14 Boarding Schools and 7 Day Schools.
The Butter and Poultry Market were opened.
The Ladies College in Widemarsh Street was established.
The Elizabethan Market Hall was demolished by Charles Anthony.
The Population is now, 15,585.
The Cathedral Organ is added to.
The Butter Market was reconstructed.
The Cathedral is opened by the Bishop pd Oxford after 20 years of closure.
Johnson’s Almshouses were rebuilt.
On October 6th, an Earthquake was felt in the City.
The Canonary at the end of Broad Street was rebuilt.
A Royal Sturgeon was caught in the WYE, IT WAS 8 Feet long and 4.5 Feet in circumference.
The Hereford-Hay and Brecon Railway was opened.
A new metal Choir screen was erected in the Cathedral designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. (Now in the V and A in London.)
St Paul’s Tupsley and St James’ Church were built.
Hereford Rugby Club was formed.
The Club was formed in 1870 and played its early games at the Barrack Ground in Bartonsham. The first secretary was recorded as a Fredrick Wilding.
During its early years, the club played at five different venues, as well as the Barrack Ground, matches were played at Widemarsh Common, Castle Green, Portfield Meadow and Edgar Street.
Opponents at this time included Gloucester, Newport, Worcester, Kidderminster, and South Wales, in addition to sides from Ledbury, Ross, Abergavenny and Monmouth.
Hereford’s first International was James Bevan who in February 1881, captained Wales in their first international against England at Blackheath.
In the early years, the club thrived, but by the turn of the century the club had lapsed into playing only holiday games with sides made up of Varsity and Public-School men.
The Bath and West Agricultural Show was held in Hereford.
The Girls High School was founded.
The present Cathedral School Buildings were erected on the corner of Quay Street.
The Bath and West Show was again held in Hereford.
The Boys Home and Industrial School was built in Bath Street.
John “JACK” Sharp who represented England at both Football and Cricket was born in Eign Gate.
The Hereford Herd Book Society was founded for dealing in Cattle.
The Kerry Arms was converted into a “Coffee Palace” it soon failed. The County College was built, in 1904 it was to become the College of Education.
The Canal ceased to function.
The Baptist Church in Commercial Road was built. A Methodist Church was built in St Owen’s Street.
There was a Great Snowstorm in the City.
The Population is now, 19,821
The Post office was opened.
A water tower was built at accost of £7,725
The Old House in High Town was restored.
Holy Trinity Church was built.
The Conservative Club was established.
A Sewer Pipe was laid across the Castle Green.
The High School for Girls was established.
Brian HATTON Artist was born in Whitecross. He was to become a nationally known Artist.
The Cattle Market was enlarged. Henry Percy BULMER opens his Cider Factory, starting in Maylord Street and the acquiring an acre of land in Ryelands Street.
The Eye and Ear Hospital was opened.
The Cathedral Organ was enlarged and rebuilt. Two Children were struck and killed by a falling tree on the Castle Green.
The Population had advanced to 20,267
The Gardens adjoining the Victoria Bridge were constructed and added to the Castle Green.
The Wester Mail saluted a Glorious Victory for the Pro UNIONIST movement, a defeat for the Gladstone candidate saw Mr W. H. Grenfell defeated and the Conservative Mr E. Radcliffe Cooke elected with the highest Conservative poll on record.
The Fruit Market was opened.
St James infant School was founded. There was a significant earthquake in the City that damaged many of the Chimneys, the epicentre was in Fownhope.
The Cattle fair moved from the Streets to the Cattle Market.
The Cathedral Library was opened.
The Victoria Bridge was opened.
Motor Cars were being assembled by Smooth-Geared Auto- Car Syndicate of Commercial Road who later became Connelly and Sons.
The Population was now 21,382
St James’ Church Burnt down.
The New West window of the Cathedral was completed. The Town Hall Foundation Stone was laid.
William Haywood is the last man hanged in the City Goal.
The New West Front of the Cathedral is Dedicated.
The Original CO-OP was built in Widemarsh Street. Car Number plates were first issued and in August of that Year the First National light car TRIALS were held in and around Hereford.
The Restoration of the Tower and Vestry of St Peter’s Church took place.
St Owen’s School was built.
Holmer infants School was built.
The Corner Stone of the South West Turret of the Cathedral was laid.
Mr E. F. Bulmer was elected Mayor.
An area of Bewell Street and including Friar Street was demolished.
Further alterations were made to the Cathedral Organ.
The Suffragettes hold a meeting in St Peters Square and again in the following year.
The “Garden City” area of Hereford was opened. It was pioneered by Ebenezer Howard on acquired land at Barrs Court with no more than 12 houses to the acre.
The Population was now 22,568
The First Cinema was opened in the City.
Lord Scudamore’s Endowed Schools were sold to the City Council.
There were 130 Licensed premises for the selling of Drink.
There were 5,337 dwelling Houses in the City.
The Corn Exchange was reconstructed as a Theatre and opened.
The Corner of Broad Street and Eign Street were Demolished and widened and rebuilt. The Apostolic Church was built.
Eight schoolgirls are killed in a fire at the Garrick Theatre in Broad Street whilst performing for First World War Soldiers.
Production starts at the Rotherwas Munitions Factory. By 1918 there were 5,943 employees. 1,966 of them mem and 3,977 women.
Hereford United is formed out of St Martin’s and Rotherwas.
Women are granted the Vote; the next Mayor was Louise Luard the first Woman to hold the Office.
Cannon Burnett Hillman Streeter worked out how the Chain Library in the Cathedral would have been arranged in the 17th Century and it was reassembled.
The daily number of vehicles using the Wye Bridge had reached an average of 5,500. In 1939 to ease congestion a New Bridge was proposed just yards up stream, the Second World War scuppered that plan.
The Rotherwas Munitions Factory reopens, with some 3,700 people employed, mainly women.
The Three Choirs Festival is abandoned due to the Second World War.
BY now the average daily traffic over the Wye BRIDGE had risen to 9,500 vehicles a day.
Hereford gets its first Supermarket; Maypole opens in Commercial Street. Followed by Tesco’s also in Commercial Street.
The SAS was formed in North Africa in 1941 by David Stirling, who had grown weary of the failures of large operations and wanted to switch to faster-moving, four-man patrols. Since 1960, 22 SAS, the regular army unit, has been based in Hereford. In 2000, the regiment moved to the RAF base at Credenhill. It is thought to have four operational squadrons, each comprising around 60 men.
Henry WIGGIN opens a factory in HOLMER. It employed over 3,000 people.
The Kemble Theatre closes and is replace by Kemble House the tax 0ffice.
By now with the growing population the number of vehicles crossing the Wye Bridge was 24,000 (population 40,431).
Greyfriars Bridge (The New Bridge) is opened.
Mott the Hoople famed for a song penned by David Bowie (All the Young Dudes) topped the Charts, they were the only band ever to support Queen.
The Sixth Form College opens on Aylestone Hill.
The Pretenders fronted by Chrissie Hynde were formed in 1980 the had a number one hit “Brass in Pocket”.
The National College for the Blind takes over the old Teachers training College on College Hill.
57,000 VECHICLES a day now cross the New Bridge.
The New Library building was designed to hold the Chained Library and the Mappa Mundi was opened in the Cathedral Grounds. Under a Private Finance Initiative, a New County Hospital is planned (£65 million) 250 beds. Work commenced in 1999 and it opened 2002.
H.P. Bulmer’s taken over by Scottish and Newcastle Breweries.
The Shrine of St Thomas CANTILUPE in the north transept is restored to its former Glory, his bones were in the shrine between 1287 and 1349. In 1349 they were moved to the Lady Chapel. This was destroyed in the REFORMATION in 1530 but the original tomb remained unscathed.
FIRE burns 16/17 High TOWN and the passageway that led from High Town to the Booth HALL.